Sporting terms in Asturias: game and art
Sporting terms in Asturias: game and art
Jesús Castañón Rodríguez
(*) Text of the speech made to the Real Insituto de Estudios Asturianos, Oviedo, 2006.
To speak of sport in Asturias is to do so in one of the lands in which it attained its greatest impulse. Not only with the participation of various representatives in the restoration of the Olympic Games of the Modern Era, but with an ample history of results that, in 2004, amounted to seven Olympic diplomas in the Athens Games and eight medallists in European and World championships and, in 2005, reached the number of 10 World champions (1) and 877 medallists among all the competitions and categories.
Sport has leapt from the beaches, the open spaces situated on front of the bullrings, the training grounds and programmes of festivities to a great diversification of activities including rural, Olympic, Paralympic, extreme, adventure … and sports-based companies.
All this activity, from west to east and from the coast to the mountains, popularised its terms in daily life, created slogans, fed rivalries and festive atmospheres to tell of each new feat and spread the lyric of shared feelings.
It is a complex reality, the linguistic reflection of which in Castilian Spanish has included contributions regarding the historical explanation of terms, the treatment of neologisms, the use of the terminology in audiovisual journalism, the study and bibliographic documentation of sports literature, the commenting of Anglicisms and the preparation of monographic studies on cycling and football. And the Asturian language includes terminology for all the traditional modes of sport, three sports from the winter Olympic Games (skiing, skating, pentathlon), twenty from the summer Olympic Games (athletics, basketball, handball, volleyball, baseball, boxing, cycling, fencing, football, gymnastics, weight-lifting, equestrian sports, wrestling, swimming, pentathlon, table tennis, canoeing, sailing, judo) and with 13 of the 28 sports recognised as such by the International Olympic Committee (mountaineering, motor racing, chess, billiard sports, bowling, golf, karate, motorcycling, skating, pelota, polo, rugby, scuba diving) (2) .
Sports patrimony in Asturias currently means that of 1,076,635 inhabitants, 86,997 practice sports with a federation licence. Its organisation includes 53 federations, 1,624 clubs and organised competitions serving 61 sporting disciplines (3), as well as another 10 for school sports and another 7 for special sports(4). In addition, it receives the support of a large number of specialised journalists for reporting and the recognition of special prizes for good results. This is a task in which the Sports Press Association of the Principality of Asturias plays an important part with its 137 registered journalists, or the Prince of Asturias Foundation which, since 1987, has presented 19 awards to recognise values of excellence, effort, improvement, cultivation, promotion and spreading of sports (5).
In order to reach this brilliant situation 111 years of sporting activity have passed, which are the result of the anonymous effort of various generations and the evolution of which can be organised in various stages.
The promotion of modern sport, between the end of the 19th century and the first third of the twentieth, was consolidated in Asturias on five axes, especially in Avilés, Gijón and Oviedo: traditional games, the exploitation of nature, leisure in the industrial society, education and emigration.
According to the entry «Deporte» (Sport) in the Gran Enciclopedia Asturiana the practice is related to free and fixed skittles, the bar, the bat, the ball, races, wrestling, the greasy pole, regattas, the «llave» (similar to quoits), cock fighting, hunting, ditch jumping, quoits and «culucambeixos» (6) an activity which involves rolling down the side of a hill.
The traditional games extended through bowling alleys, squares and open spaces. From east to west could be heard the reverberating sounds of birch, hazel, chestnut, beech or apple trees from the trunks of which had emerged balls, skittles and jacks. And the spaces were occupied by new terms for bowling «batiente», «celta», «cuatreada», «leonés», «palma», «rodado», «vaqueiro»…. finally arriving at a wide variety of activities (7).
The passion for nature as a form of freedom, regeneration and progress, was already present in the last decade of the nineteenth century with routes on foot and on horseback taken by Rosario Acuña, Gregorio Pérez, Pedro Pidal, Casiano de Prado, Loriere, Venuil, Frasinelli, Guillermo Schultz, the Count of Saint-Saud, Juan Suárez… Emotional expansion was generalised in rural life as people approached the canyons of rivers, dominated the Bay of Biscay and looked out from the Picos de Europa.
Fundamental to the leisure of the industrial society was the work of recreation societies for the diffusion of physical life and the practice of modern sport. In imitation of the gymnastic associations of Madrid, Bilbao and Barcelona, bodies emerged such as the Esgrima Club founded in the Casino of Gijón in 1901. And after the declaration in 1902 of Sunday as a non-working day, bodies proliferated in search of social regeneration, the improvement of the race, artistic culture, hygiene and urbanity. They had their own gymnasiums and organised sports meetings, theatrical representations and recreational meetings.
The first sports society, registered in the Ministry of the Interior in 1903, was the Gijón Sport Club. It promoted various sports; it worked with balls, bicycles, oars, bats, gloves and baskets; participated in the parades on carnival day; organised fights with young bulls, country races and children’s football championships, as it had a team of this age. Its members exercised on Sunday afternoons on the open space situated beside the Bullring, they wore red caps with the initials of the club embroidered on the front, a white shirt with a red collar, white trousers and shin pads (8).
This type of leisure soon found the support of Chambers of Commerce, Town Halls and programmes of festivities. Valentín Andrés Álvarez and Fernando Vela remembered those times in which matches were suspended if it rained, every team had a «godmother» who embroidered the flag and shield of the club, the clubs challenged each other from the pages of the newspapers, children accompanied the players to put up the goal posts, the balls performed strange effects as they bounced on irregular fields which were marked by the footprints of the cows, the fans travelled to the fields in convoys of bicycles or by tram (9)…
Education became involved with the participation of three delegates from the University of Oviedo – Adolfo González Posada, Aniceto Sela and Adolfo Álvarez Buylla – who acted as Members of Honour in the 1894 Congress of the International Olympic Committee, which assumed the restoration of the Olympic Games of the Modern Era (10). And in the diffusion of sport a notable role was played the followers of the educational precepts of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Free Institute of Teaching), clubs such as the Unión Escolar in Oviedo, the schools of La Salle and of the Jesuits and the families linked to an industrial education in Germany and England.
In emigration, sport reached a singular form among the Asturian organisations in the American continent which were forged for mutual aid, the elevation of culture and the maintenance of roots. It was a very intense emotional bond for the Asturian dream in the world and became a form for the giving of talent and energy. If suitcases could talk, they would reveal how many of the emigrants carried some sporting item as a symbol of illusions, yearnings and emotional expansion. They would tell the tale by which Mexico was the court for football and canoeing, Cuba for all types of Olympic sports and Argentina and Uruguay were the destination for football and bowling.
In the Asturian Centres social, charitable and cultural action had a great capacity for union between the celebration of traditional fiestas and modern sport, to such an extent that during the tragedy of the Civil War football was the only recreational activity. And the projection of sporting triumphs reached its peak in Cuba with Juventud Asturiana, a multi-sport team that was founded in 1943 in the Asturian Centre of Havana, and in Mexico with Asturias, a football team from the Asturian Centre of Mexico which operated between 1918 and 1950 and won the Mexican Independence Centenary Tournament in 1921 and the Major Football League in 1922 and in the 1938-1939 season (11).
As time passed, the sporting relationship between Asturias and America was a two-way story, which can be classified in three phases: American talent as a resource for Asturian sport, the presence of Asturian sports clubs in America, and the twinning between both sides of the ocean with a sporting, social and cultural focus (12).
Throughout this era, and in spite of so much social practice, the fact is to be highlighted that only two sports federations were founded: that of football in 1915, with the active participation of the monologue author Pachín de Melás, among others, and that of athletics in 1920.
In the second third of the twentieth century, mass sport took shape. In Asturias this phenomenon benefited from three trends: numerous participation with the implementation of 27 sports federations (13), the sporting spectacle and the merger of sport and nature in a social celebration.
This is the time of the development of the bases of Olympic sport related to the Summer Games, the predominance of football and cycling as the main forms of sporting spectacle thanks to the labours of Real Oviedo, Real Sporting and the cycling Tour of Asturias and also the impulse of sporting events in combination with social celebrations, which finally became entertainment with tourist interest, such as Descending the river Sella by canoe and swimming down the Ría de Navia.
In the nineteen forties, tables were filled with chequered boards upon which «bishops, knights, pawns, kings, queens and rooks» moved and were witness to the rotational movements of the table tennis ball with «combined, back, lateral and lifted» spin. The gymnasiums were filled with «acrobatics, jumps and pirouettes» and bodies imitated nature with «crows» on the vaulting-horse, «butterflies» on the rings, «doves» and «cat steps» in other exercises. Clay courts made the spectators’ heads turn in a constant struggle between English and Spanish in expressions such as: «ace»/»saque directo», «drive»/»golpe de derecha», «passing-shot»/»golpe paralelo» or «golpe cruzado», «lob»/»globo»…
In the fifties, thanks to basketball «keys» began to appear on the court, «hailstones» were launched without precision and they even put on «sombreros» or plugs, hockey saw the arrival of «spit or wrist» «half turn» or «stick» shots, and with handball the «pass at chest height» leapt from the bullrings to the courts.
In the sixties motor racing began to carry to its many tracks the words of «circuit, grill and paddock» or to design the layout via the «fast curve, the hairpin or the chicane». Mountaineering carried to conversations terms such as «channel, crevasse, inclined plane, tray, fissure and even sentry or gendarme» to explain the conquest of furrows, crevices, hollows, gaps or smooth sections of rock.
From the nineteen sixties up to now, professionalism in sport has arrived with the founding of new sports federations, with special attention to winter sports and activities for the disabled, and the reorganisation of traditional games in a new impulse (14).
The diversification of disciplines increases, the work of large entities is favoured, new installations are created and Asturias is provided with greater infrastructure until today’s complex and varied reality is achieved.
It has been a stage of outstanding executive decisions which made achievement possible and, curiously, has also generated a specific bibliography that is not found in other latitudes (15).
This is the time in which the mountain range became populated with elements such as the «funicular» and the «ski lift» to make way for the «biathlon, bobsleigh, Nordic combination, artistic skiing, cross country skiing, ice hockey, luge, skating, jumping, skeleton, snowboard»… In the Bay of Biscay surfboards and bodyboards arrived to discover the «tube» formed by the waves before they break and the «ride» or the time the surfer manages to stay on top of them. And combined trials arose to take the capacity for resistance of those practising these sports to the limit, thanks to the «aquathlon, biathlon, duathlon, triathlon and quadrathlon».
Moreover, sports language found its place in specialised works on law and medicine with contributions by the Asturian Committee on Sporting Discipline and the Regional Unit of Sports Medicine.
It is the great era of a new social aspect: sport as a means of tourism, as a new way of travelling for consumers who wish to live unforgettable mass experiences, discover new places and reach heavenly destinations. In Asturias great routes have been developed, to be followed by car, on foot or by mountain bike, hunting, cyclo-tourism, skiing, fishing and green lanes.
The enjoyment of nature, the observation of the countryside, the struggle by humans to conquer natural forces or the relationship with resources in combination with other hobbies such as photography, drawing, painting, interest in flora and fauna, access to monuments or places of special interest, have filled the Natural Paradise with «routes for 4×4, canyoning, diving, cycling with mountain bikes, climbing, potholing, skiing, mountaineering, motorcycling on quads, sailing, orienteering, paintball, canoeing, bungee jumping, snow shoes, routes on horseback, hiking, archery, Tyrolean traverse and trekking».
The eagerness to participate anonymously in a mass spectacle, to live with an idol the unforgettable experience of competitions has generated terms such as the «mareona» for those who follow Sporting and the «blue tide» for those who live the successes of Fernando Alonso on the circuits of the formula 1 World Championship. FEVE exploited this tendency in 2004 by organising an active tourism cruise with elite sportsmen which cruised along the coast in a Transcantabrian and included the activities of mountain biking, karting and hiking (16).
The growth of sporting language and the extension of its terms would not have been possible without the help of the communications media.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, sports news was incorporated in short items and society news with articles of scarcely ten lines and a predominance of foreign terms, especially English. It was frequent to read that a «match» was going to be played between two «teams» comprising a «goalkeeper», two «backs», three «half-backs» and five «forwards». Under the gaze of a «referee», time passed on the «field» between «corners», «dribblings», «kicks», «penalties» and «shoots» to finish in a «score» with various «goals».
Journalism extended to all corners foreign terms with faraway origins, protagonists and moves from the first «sportsmen» of the twentieth century who searched for fame. Moreover, it has been able to play on the fields and in offices to tell stories, create spaces for emotional expansion, promote all kinds of competitions, found bodies, participate on boards of directors… and carry times of happiness to the people in a strategy of illusion capable of converting all kinds of dreams into reality.
General information newspapers and publications such as the «Hoja del Lunes» developed strategies such as: Adeflor, who recounted the adventures of Gijón Sport Club in 1904 and participated in the purchase of El Molinón; Francisco de Luis, information director of the innovative daily El Debate which introduced the first sports section in 1910; Julián Ayesta and Ulpiano Vigil-Escalera who joined Sporting as directors; José Tartiere and La Voz de Asturias who played a leading role in the founding of Real Oviedo…
In 1909, specialised sports journalism was created with the Gijón weekly «Vida Deportiva», which was followed in an endless relay race by numerous written publications, the radio from 1925, television from 1974 and digital media from the second half of the last decade of the twentieth century.
This century of Asturian sport saw the setting up of, at least, 53 specialised publications without taking into account professional magazines, or those of sports bodies or federations: 17 in Gijón (17), 18 in Oviedo (18), 6 in Avilés (19) and another 12 in eight localities, with Mieres standing out as a productive centre and the innovative role of Infiesto in 1932 (20).
From the 1920s this specialisation would be based on the Basque and Catalonian models via the agreements of the daily newspaper La Prensa with the North West Press Confederation and with the imitation by Gijón magazines of the style of the Barcelona weekly Los Sports. And thanks to the success in 1923 of the Asturian football team in the Spanish Championships, the readers’ interest multiplied.
Arias de Velasco, Elisak, José Manuel Aguado «Ball», León Alonso, Luis Álvarez García «Bay-Bay», Anselmo López, Manuel Monasterio, Priovel, Rafael González «Refala», Trensor, Veritas… marked the first road to new generations of informers and with their expressive formulas they managed to make numerous generations of children mad on knowing everything about sport or to practise sport themselves. They forged an extraordinary group of fans who follow their idols to the ends of the world and who express their joy in airports, cider shops, fountains or squares (21).
This peculiar style has led many Asturian professionals to have responsibilities in nationally transmitted sports journalism, as is the case of Jesús Ramos, Manuel Sarmiento Birba, Alejandro Sopeña and Toni Fidalgo in the printed press, with José María García, Pedro Pablo Parrado, Gaspar Rosety and Paco González in classic radio slots, with Emilio López Tamargo, Luis Fernández and Antonio Lobato on television…
Their labour has comprised four axes. First, the pitch with prestige journalism and the telling from the pitch of the events and their emotions with an eagerness to show gestures, give voice to the protagonists and memories and stress the importance of a competition via publications in carefully presented books (22).
Second, the stands with contributions by Juan Cueto on Canal + with his style of «magnified vision» in search of the details which pass unnoticed in the transmissions and by Paco González with colloquial language on Carrusel Deportivo with the aim of orienting sport towards entertainment, inventing the «chafún» for simply throwing oneself into the swimming pool or the charming «TALGO» («Tiro alto y largo de Goico» / Long, high shot by Goico) which Luis Enrique had to reach in the National Team.
Third, representation of the corridors of power, with a satirical vision in which José María García created a particular jargon to relativise the authority of management with humorous denominations such as «sponge, crony, outmoded, bloodsucker, dictator, bigwig, inept, big shot, gadabout, idler, provost…» and also «donkey bureaucracy, old boy network, cahoots, robbery, nepotism, figure head, swindling, scheming, rigging…» to condemn abuses.
And fourth, in the part of the media in search of social impact, the work of Alejandro Sopeña stands out in the setting up of the Fantasy League in Marca, in the nineties.
Another outstanding aspect is the reflection and the training for this specialised journalism. A task in which Luis Fernández has stood out with courses at the CEU-San Pablo University of Madrid, in collaboration with the Spanish Olympic Committee, and, subsequently, in the University of Oviedo with a summer course and the participation in the publishing of a book on the language of televised sports journalism (23) .
III.- A museum of popular culture
Experience in the clamour of sport has united memory and fantasy in a crossroads of creative energy to create an excellent museum of popular culture in which artists play on the sports ground and sports people have artistic interests.
Artists in sport
This cultural heritage has passed from generation to generation thanks to its expression in various forms of the fine arts and literature. It includes matters relating to, at least: Olympic sports, motor racing, cycling, football, mountaineering, fishing and canoeing.
Painting has welcomed pictures of mountaineering and football. Thus, it is worth highlighting the work of Nicanor Piñole or the publication of a catalogue on the mountain in painting by the Agrupación de Montaña Astur Torrecerredo (Astur Torrecerredo Mountain Association) in 1997. And in the case of football, the work of a century of Sporting with the incorporation of the painter and art critic Ignacio Lavilla as the first secretary of the club, continuing with the ex-player Javier Martínez Solar, the publishing of the picture books «Sporting-I. Paisaje y Figuras» and «El Sporting y el Fútbol» and the exhibition Terrenos de Juego 1995-2005 (24) .
Drawing for advertising has contributed works relating to all kinds of sports, the work of Horacio Guerrero and Marola being outstanding for football and that of the artist Enrique Herreros in his excursions among the Picos de Europa. And graphic humour has generated smiles, keeping pace with current events, thanks to the ingenuity of caricatures, strips and vignettes by Adolfo García, Albuerne, Alfonso, Alfredo, Jorge Iván Argiz and Martín Castaño, Bya, Carlos María de Luis, Falo, Pablo García and Rogelio Román Jerre, Marcos, Milín, Moré, Naves, Néstor with his unsurpassable section «Deportes de verano» as an example of the recreation of reality in sporting terms, Neto, Niembro, Pau, Piero, Rafa Quirós, Rovés, Sánchez, Suárez, Truán (25)…
Cinematographic expression has found a place in motor racing and football. This is the case of the participation of Fernando Alonso and Antonio Lobato as dubbing actors in the Spanish language version of the film «Cars», of the remarkable refereeing life in the short film «Lo Que el Ojo No Ve» by José Braña or the presence of Sporting in the short films «Sporting, un Sentimiento» and «Quini», the documentary «Alma Sportinguista» and the feature films comprising the Nostalgia Trilogy, by José Luis Garci: «Volver a Empezar», «Sesión Continua» and «Asignatura Aprobada». And also the reflection on the screen and football in the book «Fútbol y Cine» (26).
Music has been the favourite form of Asturian sport and includes eight different musical styles to describe situations from Olympic sports, motor racing, cycling, mountaineering, canoeing and football.
The Olympic sports people of Asturias accompanied Pipo Prendes with their voices in 1992 in the theme «Asturias por el deporte» and in 2004 at the agrorock of Los Berrones in «Por Deporte». Formula 1 motor racing found rumba rhythms with Ramón Melendi who in «Asturias» baptised Fernando Alonso as the King of the Wind to convert him into «Magic Alonso» a blue bullet, the boy who, after falling into a pot of cider, is now a blue bullet who transforms black days into days of excitement and also in the hymn of the «Rally Príncipe de Asturias-Ciudad de Oviedo». Cycling has enjoyed the contributions of piper José Ángel Hevia with «El Tirador» and singer Ramón Melendi with «Con la luna llena» as theme tunes for the Tour of Spain cycling race in 2003 and 2004. Mountaineering finds its expression in classical music thanks to the «Sonata de los Picos de Europa», by María del Carmen Santiago De Merás in 1997. Canoeing is converted with the descent of the river Sella, thanks to «Asturias» by Ramón Melendi, into the symbol of the sentimental and joyous link with Asturias.
And football has included compositions relating to the Spanish National Team, the encouragement of calm fans, Real Oviedo and Real Sporting. Ramón Melendi transforms the feeling of impotence on the occasion of the defeat of the National Team against Korea in the 2002 World Cup into an opportunity for hope in «Sé lo que hicisteis». The encouragement of coexistence between fans appeared with the theme «Fútbol sí, violencia no», interpreted by Pipo Prendes at the First National Congress of Football Supporters Clubs in Gijón in 2000. The relegation of Real Oviedo to the third division served for Babylon Chat to interpret to a 4×4 rhythm the desire to recover and return to the places claimed by sporting history in ‘Como un huracán’.
Sporting has presented great variety, given that its founder, goalkeeper and president Anselmo López, set the tone for this relationship by promoting footballing activity with the slogan «Singing and playing sport dignify a man». The words made the ball dance lovingly in songs to the rhythm of paso dobles, hymns, rock & roll, habaneras and ballads. After 1915, the paso doble gave rise to a piece of work by the conductor of the Banda Municipal de Música and to «Alirón-rá-rá-rá» to celebrate the first promotion to the First Division. The hymn has been present in the official theme of Rafael Moro, the composition of singer songwriter Víctor Manuel «¡Puxa, Sporting!» for the centenary in collaboration with José Ángel Hevia and the Coro Minero de Turón and the «Canción de los Veteranos del Real Sporting de Gijón» spreading their moral and sporting values on the album Sentimiento Sportinguista. Hearts have beaten to the rhythm of rock & roll with «Once Jinetes», the theme in which Banda Nocturna interprets the club as a sun with red and white light that unites a city in one voice around a team of tireless horsemen with fighting spirit; «¡¡¡Todos a una!!!», the collective theme in which the roars of ‘Sporting, Sporting’ accompany the tigers of skill, strength and good play in which the players are converted thanks to Marta Álvarez, Crash, Enfadados poe Txolo «Gioberti», Knockout, Manu Maroto, Carlos Martínez, Nexo, Vendaval and VulneraBles; and Los Maurizios with their yearning for the old times in «Los Años Dorados», with evenings of handkerchiefs and scarves in the wind to evoke the feats of Ferrero, Quini and Joaquín. The habanera was a musical homage by the Coro Marinero Manín de Lastres with «Al Sporting de Gijón en su Centenario» to emphasise the enthusiasm of the unconditional fans who encourage from the stands, over and above the ups and downs. It emphasises the pride, the fighting spirit and the fury of a team which has shone with its own light, as well as the wish for happiness to return and leap in the stands. And the ballad has contributed the «Himno del ‘Matagigantes'» in 1958 with Juan Martín Merino, recently covered by Tordín de Pría. This tradition has extended to references in ballads such as «Desde lo Alto de la Atalaya» by El Presi, in the song «Corrida Street» by singer songwriter Manolín the grandson of Celo’ Xuan and in the rock song «Soy Minero» by Los Nikis, as well as in the melodies of chants of encouragement in the stands of El Molinón and in carnival lyrics for El Antroxu. And it is completed with the chant to the great myth in «¡Ahora, Quini, Ahora!» by Pipo Prendes.
In literature, sport has played in the fields of memory and fantasy. In the fields of memory, with the work of the official chroniclers of Oviedo and Gijón in the social commentary of current sporting events (27).
In fantasy, football, mountaineering, fishing and canoeing have been the motive of creative literature. In the last decade of the twentieth century the first writings of Rosario Acuña were recorded in «Los Dominicales del Libre Pensamiento» on her visits with no geological purpose to the Picos de Europa and in the twenty first century, literary creation has extended to canoeing and fishing thanks to the short story competitions «Historias del Día de les Piragües» and «Concurso de Microrrelatos de Pesca del Bajo Narcea-Nalón» which are held in Arriondas and Salas.
However, the majority of literary production has concentrated on football. Its social commentary has constituted a motive for conversation, an element to share and an indelible mark. In Gijón this trend has been reflected by José F. Barcia in the novel «Santina Gjionesa», José Luis Garci in «Morir de Cine», José Ignacio Gracia Noriega in «Las Crónicas de la Cofradía de la Buena Mesa», Luis Sepúlveda in «Gijón: Amor y Mar», Aurelio Menéndez in «A propósito de Asturias» or Carlos Martínez in «La vida en Gijón» and Jesús Castañón Rodríguez in «Un encuentro romántico». In Oviedo, Valentín Andrés Alvarez in «Aparece el fútbol» remembered the beginnings of this sport in this city and Fernando Vela with «Futbol Association y Rugby» and «Embrutecimiento» emphasised footballing values and criticised the excesses of its conversion into a sporting spectacle for the masses. And in the coalfields, Pepe Campo told, between 1960 and 1963, of the passionate experience of the mining environment with Santiago de Aller in the information sheet «Penalty» (28).
It has also been the setting for an environment of intense feelings and to give a new meaning to life for the followers of sporting and the National Team. It has had a special colour thanks to Luciano Castañón in «Gijón, algunos colores» and it has provided a new meaning in the stories «Tiempo perdido» by Bruno Arpaia and «Bello es Gijón» by Ricardo Vázquez Prada, in the novel «La balada del Pitbull» by Pablo Rivero and in the theatrical work of Maxi Rodríguez «¡Oé, oé, oé!». It has expressed joy in the theatre comedy «Estilo de boleos» by Eladio Verde and nostalgia in the poems «Sabe a sal» by Pedro Alberto Marcos and «Romance del gol de mar» by Jesús Castañón Rodríguez. It has sung to the myths Maceda and Quini in the verses «Guerrero rojiblanco en verde arena» by Guillermo Senén Molleda Valdés and «Pa’ Quini esi xugador y brillante goleador», «Sin que nada me interceda, faigo homenaje a Maceda» and the book «Quini, Semblanzas de un Mito» by Kike Amado. It has made room for the rivalry between Sporting and Oviedo in the poems «Apoyado en el tapial» by José Campo and «Ripios de la mesura y discordia cordial» by Pedro de Silva Cienfuegos-Jovellanos or in the stories «La competición de Villabona» by Francisco García Pavón and «Bailando un tango» by David Serna. And it has favoured literary recreation in the notes «Reflexión» by Corín Tellado, «Es un ballet sin música» by Guillermo Senén Molleda Valdés, «Dies ludorum» by Carmen Ojea and «Antes de que el fútbol se llamara así» by Juan José Plans.
Sportsmen in art
Without doubt, an interesting aspect is the incursion of sportsmen such as Luciano Castañón in the novel «Los días como pájaros» in 1962 or his interest in mountaineering in the Picos de Europa to record sayings and traditions, that of José Manuel Fernández in the biography «Compañero Quini» and other stories or of the director Eustaquio Campomanes in the theatrical work «Dichoso aquel que tiene» and in the musical organisation of the Festival de la Costa Verde.
In summary, this century of modern sport in Asturias is a history of human emotions and adventures. Its terms have expressed experiences of the pitches and competitions and have demonstrated that they are also an occasion for the full creation of language in art and culture.
(1) In 2005, the following became world champions: Fernando Alonso motor racing; Alberto and Raúl Entrerríos and Rubén Garabaya in handball; Manuel Busto in canoeing; Rocío Gamonal in mountain biking and Raúl Fernández, Alejandro Legorbouru, Carmen Martínez and Brezo Suárez in paddle tennis.
(2) For the reflection in Spanish Cf. ALARCOS LLORACH, Emilio. «Cuando Gento se escapa de Sem Tob», El Norte de Castilla, Valladolid, 16 June 1990 and «Consideraciones sobre el neologismo», El neologismo necesario. Madrid: Fundación Efe, p. 17-29, 1ª Ed. 1992. CASTAÑÓN RODRÍGUEZ , JESÚS. «Historia literaria del Real Sporting». In Idioma y deporte. Valladolid, published by the author, 305-396, 1ª ed., 1999; Diccionario terminológico del deporte. Gijón, Ediciones Trea, 2005; «Palabras en juego». Section published in La Nueva España, Oviedo, 29 August 2005 to 19 June 2006. CASTAÑÓN RODRÍGUEZ, JESÚS Y RODRÍGUEZ ARANGO, MARÍA ÁNGELES. Creación literaria española sobre deporte moderno. Valladolid, published by the authors,1997, «Literatura y deporte moderno (1845-1995). Su enseñanza en la Escuela de Magisterio». In ARIAS MARTÍNEZ, BENITO (Coordinador). De Escuela Normal a Facultad de Educación. 150 años de innovaciones educativas en Valladolid. Valladolid, Universidad de Valladolid, p. 129-144, 1ª ed., 1998, «Bibliografía española de creación literaria del deporte», Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, 13, Buenos Aires, 24 March 1999 [On line] [Consultation: 15 May 2006] Available on <http://www.efdeportes.com/efd13/ biblesp.htm> and «110 años de literatura española y deporte», Idioma y deporte, 50-54, Valladolid, 2004 [On line] [Consultation: 15 May 2006] Available on <http://www.idiomaydeporte.com/litpres.htm>. FERNÁNDEZ GARCÍA, ANTONIO. «Sport y Deporte. Compuestos y derivados», Revista de Filología Moderna 11, 93-110, Madrid, 1970-1971 and «Anglicismos del deporte en Colombia», Español Actual número 19, 18-22, Madrid, 1971. RODRÍGUEZ DÍEZ, BONIFACIO. El lenguaje sectorial del ciclismo en la prensa escrita. Tesis doctoral, Universidad de Oviedo, 1978; «El lenguaje periodístico del ciclismo: expresividad y connotación», Estudios Humanísticos número 1, 33-48, Oviedo, 1979; Las lenguas especiales. El léxico del ciclismo. León, Colegio Universitario de León, 1981 and «El lenguaje sectorial del deporte en la lengua escrita». In AGENCIA EFE-GOBIERNO DE LA RIOJA. El idioma español en el deporte. Madrid, Fundación Efe, 109-140, 1ª ed., 1994. URDIALES, M.: «Nota sobre el léxico del fútbol», Archivum, 44-45, 145-147, Oviedo, 1994-1995. Para la reflexión en asturiano Cf. ACADEMIA DE LA LLINGUA ASTURIANA. Diccionariu de l’Academia de la Llingua Asturiana. Oviedo, KRK Ediciones, 2000 and GARCÍA ARIAS, XOSÉ LLUIS. Diccionario General de la Lengua Asturiana. Oviedo, Editorial Prensa Asturiana, 2004. Other reflections relating to sporting terms linked to Asturias are: LAPESA, RAFAEL. «Nuestra lengua en la España de 1898 a 1936», El español moderno y contemporáneo. Barcelona, Crítica, p. 343-396, 1ª ed., 1996 and LÁZARO CARRETER, FERNANDO. «El español en el lenguaje deportivo». In AGENCIA EFE-GOBIERNO DE LA RIOJA. El idioma español en el deporte. Madrid, Fundación Efe, p. 19-36, 1ª ed., 1994.
(3) Specifically, these 61 disciplines are: subaquatic activities, aeronautics, chess, athletics, motor racing, badminton, basketball, handball, baseball and softball, billiard sports, bowling, boxing, hunting, cycling, pigeon-fancying, pigeon-breeding, winter sports, mountain sports, climbing and hiking, sports for the physically handicapped, sports for the mentally handicapped, sports for persons with cerebral palsy, sports for the deaf, traditional sports, fencing, potholing, football, American football, five-a-side football, gymnastics, golf, weight lifting, equestrian sports, hockey, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, motorcycling, speedboat racing, swimming, orienteering, paddle tennis, skating, pelota, modern pentathlon, fishing, petanque, canoeing, rowing, rugby, rescue and lifesaving, squash, surf and bodyboard, taekwondo, tennis, table tennis, archery, shooting, triathlon, sailing and volleyball. Cf. GOBIERNO DEL PRINCIPADO DE ASTURIAS. Deporte asturiano. [On line] [Consultation: 15 May 2006] Available on <http://tematico.princast.es/juvedep/ deportes/>
(4) School sport includes: chess, athletics, badminton, basketball, handball, bowling, cross country, cycling, football, five-a-side football, rhythmic gymnastics, golf, roller hockey, judo, karate, swimming, orienteering, speed skating, canoeing, tennis, table tennis and volleyball. Special sport includes: athletics, basketball, cross country, five-a-side football, table football, swimming and table tennis.
(5) The Prince of Asturias Prizes for Sport have distinguished Olympic sports and the sports disciplines of: athletics, motor racing, cycling, football, golf, motorcycling, tennis and water polo, as well as Olympic sports. Up to 2005, only one Asturian sportsman had received it: the Formula 1 world champion, Fernando Alonso.
(6) Cf. Gran Enciclopedia Asturiana, tomo V. Gijón, p. 292, 1ª Ed, 1974.
(7) Cf. RUIZ ALONSO, GERARDO JOSÉ. Los bolos asturianos. Gijón, published by the author, 1983; Juego de la llave. Gijón, published by the author, 1993; Juegos y deportes tradicionales en Asturias. Gijón, Alborá Llibros, 2001; Los bolos en Asturias. Gijón, Alborá Llibros, 2002; Jovellanos y la educación física : estudio introductorio, selección y comentarios. Gijón, Fundación Foro Jovellanos del Principado de Asturias, 2002. TERTULIA CULTURAL EL GARRAPIELLU. Deportes tradicionales d’ Asturies. Oviedo, 2003.
(8) Cf. E. B., «Gijón Deportivo», El Comercio, Gijón, 28 June 1902; CAMINO DÍAZ, Antonio, «Vida física», El Comercio, Gijón, 18 June 1903; DOCTOR ABELLA, «Gijón Sport-Club», El Comercio, Gijón, 11 August 1903; ADEFLOR, «Los chicos del ‘Sport'», El Comercio, Gijón, 25 February 1904; ROSAL, Franco del, «La fiesta de esta tarde», El Comercio, Gijón, 22 June 1905; ALVARGONZÁLEZ, Romualdo, «Así nació el Gijón Sport-Club», El Comercio, Gijón, 17 March 1957. URÍA, JORGE. Una historia social del ocio. Asturias 1989-1914. Madrid, Unión General de Trabajadores, 1996.
(9) Cf. ANDRÉS ÁLVAREZ, VALENTÍN. «Aparece el fútbol». En Memorias de medio siglo. Oviedo, Caja de Ahorros de Asturias, p. 37-39, 1ª Ed., 1989 and VELA, FERNANDO. Futbol Association y Rugby. Madrid, Calpe, 1924 and «Embrutecimiento». La Revista de Occidente, 143, Madrid, 1935.
(10) Cf. MARTÍNEZ MAGDALENA, ÁNGEL. Pioneros españoles del olimpismo moderno: los Adolfo Buylla, Aniceto Sala, Adolfo Posada. Oviedo, Principado de Asturias. Servicio Central de Publicaciones, 1992.
(11) Cf. CASTAÑÓN RODRÍGUEZ, JESÚS. «América y Sporting». En Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, 90. Buenos Aires (Argentina), 22 de octubre de 2005. [En línea] [Consulta: 15 de mayo de 2006] Disponible en <http://www.efdeportes.com/efd90/ sporting.htm>.
(12) One of the last examples of this relationship has been the participation of Argentinian, Cuban, Spanish and Venezuelan authors in the XVIII International Detective Story Competition, organised by Semana Negra (Crime Fiction Week) and the Ateneo Obrero (Workers’ Cultural Association) of Gijón, and the quotation on the reflection regarding the experience of the fans in mass sports, supported by the I National Congress of Football Fan Clubs which was held in Gijón in 2000, in the Law to Combat Violence in Sport of Costa Rica. Cf. SEMANA NEGRA. Cuentos policíacos del Centenario. Gijón. 2005 and DONATO MONGE, GIANNINA-FLORES ZÚÑIGA, FRANCISCO. «Proyecto de Ley de combate a la violencia en el deporte». Asamblea Legislativa, San José (Costa Rica), 2005.
(13) In the nineteen forties eight federations were founded: chess (1942), billiards (1943), boxing (1942), gymnastics (1940), pelota (1942), fishing (1942), rowing (1946), tennis (1946) and table tennis (1948). In the nineteen fifties, another six: basketball (1950), handball (1958), cycling (1957), hockey (1951), wrestling (1954) and skating (1956). And in the nineteen sixties, diversification increased with another thirteen federations: subaquatic activities (1961), motor racing (1964), bowling (1962), aerial sports (1965), weight-lifting (1966), judo (1964), mountaineering, climbing and hiking (1963), speed-boat racing (1969), canoeing (1961), rugby (1964), rescue and life-saving (1960), archery (1960), shooting (1968) and volleyball (1960).
(14) In the nineteen seventies six new federations arose: baseball and softball (1972), winter sports (1976), equestrian sports (1977), karate (1977), motorcycling (1972) and swimming (1976). In the nineteen eighties, eight appeared: badminton (1989), hunting (1989), potholing (1985), golf (1989), petanque (1984), squash (1988), taekwondo (1988) and sailing (1985). In the decade of the nineties another seven arose: Sports for the physically handicapped (1993), Sports for the mentally handicapped (1997), Sports for the deaf (1998), fencing (1992), kickboxing (1997), paddle tennis (1998) and triathlon (1990). And in the first years of the twenty-first century three new federations were founded: traditional sports (2000), surf and bodyboard (2000) and pigeon-fancying (2001).
(15) Cf. CUESTA FERNÁNDEZ, Janel. Real Grupo de Cultura Covadonga. Libro de Honor. Gijón, 1995; Todos los asturianos del Real Madrid C. F. Gijón, Martecsa Ediciones, 2002; Dionisio de la Huerta: un hombre de tres siglos. Gijón, 2004; Los hombres del Sporting. Gijón, J&Roth Creativos, 2004.
(16) Cf. EL TRANSCANTÁBRICO-FEVE. El Transcantábrico, un crucero deportivo. Oviedo, FEVE, 2005. [edición en DVD].
(17) This is the case of: Vida deportiva (1909), Los Sports (1916), Asturias deportiva (1917, 1922 y 1994), Los Deportes (1921 y 1924), El KO (1927), Deportes (1928), Revista gijonesa (1928), Sport (1930), Deporte y turismo (1930), Deporte y turismo astur (1930), Arte y Sport (1931), Deporte astur (1980), Deporte base de Asturias (1999) and El rival deportivo.
(18) In the capital the following were published: Stadium (1919), Olimpia (1921), Los deportes (1921), El guirigay (1923), Ecos deportivos (1924), Deporte y turismo astur (1924), Toros y deportes (1928), Asturias deportiva (1952), Gol (1962), Universidad y deporte (1972), Medicina y deporte (1986), Deporte joven (1997), La Galería (1997), Universidad de Oviedo (1997), Sportmanía (1998), Oviedo deportivo (2001), Corner (2001) and DSE (2002).
(19) In this city appeared: Avilés deportivo (1920), Pulsaciones x minuto (1991),. Deporastur (1996), Tododeporte Principado (1996), Avilésport (2002) and Multisport (2003).
(20) This is the case of Corvera with Deportes (2000), Infiesto with Deportiva (1932), Llanes with La hoja (2000), Lugones with La gaceta deportiva de Asturias (1997) and Asturias Press (2005), Mieres with Cultura y deporte (1909), Mieres deportivo (1920) and Cuenca deportiva (2004), Piedras Blancas with Castrillón deportes (1987), Pola de Laviana with Caudal Sport (2003) and Nalón Sport (2003) and Ribadesella with Rompiente.
(21) Cf. ADÚRIZ, PATRICIO. «Real Sporting de Gijón», El Comercio, Gijón, 21 de octubre de 1979 y «¡Sporting!», El Comercio, Gijón, 7 de marzo de 1982. AVELLO, MANUEL. Historia del periodismo asturiano. Salinas, Ayalga, 1977. CASTAÑÓN RODRÍGUEZ, JESÚS. «Estrategas de la ilusión». En Gala del deporte asturiano 2005, Oviedo, Asociación de la Prensa Deportiva del Principado de Asturias-Dirección General de Deportes del Principado, p.14, 2006. GRECIET, ESTEBAN. Prensa y Poder en la Asturias del Franquismo. Mieres, Grupo Norte, 1996. LÓPEZ TAMARGO, EMILIO. Desventuras radiotelevisivas. Oviedo: Alsa, 1991. POBLET, FERNANDO. Historia de la radio en Asturias. Salinas, Ayalga, 1982. RODRÍGUEZ INFIESTA, VÍCTOR. «Deporte y prensa en la Asturias de principios de siglo. De la excentricidad a la centralidad informativa». En Actas del X Congreso de historia del deporte, Sevilla, 2005. [En línea] [Consulta: 15 de mayo de 2006] Disponible en <http://www.cafyd.com/HistDeporte/ htm/pdf/5-4.pdf>
(22) Cf. AGUADO, JOSÉ «BALL». Confidencias, historias y perfiles de los ases del football asturiano, Gijón, 1923. ALLER, JOSÉ LUIS-VIÑA, DIONISIO-MIER, ALEJANDRA-RODRIGO, JAVIER-SANDE, JESÚS. Gijón: cien años de deporte, I. Gijón, Gran Enciclopedia Asturiana, 2000. Andecha 92: voluntarios olímpicos asturianos (1988-1991). Oviedo, Principado de Asturias. Servicio Central de Publicaciones, 1991. ANTUÑA SUÁREZ, AGUSTÍN-ARBESÚ SUÁREZ, DANIEL-CUESTA, JANEL-GONZÁLEZ MUÑIZ, MIGUEL ÁNGEL. El Grupo, Gijón, Mases Ediciones,1988. BLANCO CASASOLA, MIGUEL ÁNGEL. El descenso del Sella y su valor histórico deportivo. Oviedo, Principado de Asturias. Servicio Central de Publicaciones, 1986. CASAPRIMA COLLERA, ADOLFO. El Príncipe de los rallyes. Oviedo, Casaprima editor, 1999. CASAPRIMA COLLERA, ADOLFO-FEITO, CHEMA-FELGUEROSO, JOSÉ MARÍA-PARDO, RAMÓN. Regios patines. Oviedo, Casaprima editor, 1998. CIMADEVILLA, MANUEL DE. Lueje, el amante de la montaña. Oviedo, Cajastur, 2003. CUESTA FERNÁNDEZ, Janel. Panchano «XXV años de la natación asturiana». Gijón,1987; Mujeres de Asturias, Figuras femeninas del deporte. Gijón, 1988; Historia de los deportes del mar. Gijón, 1988. DÍAZ BRAÑA, MARIO. Mi Everest. Oviedo, Ediciones Nobel, 2005. FERNÁNDEZ CABEZA, LUIS. Los deportes locales, origen y desarrollo. Mieres, Librería Cultura, 1979. FERNÁNDEZ DÍAZ, MELCHOR. Historia del deporte asturiano. Salinas, Ayalga Ediciones, 1977. FERNÁNDEZ RIERA, MACRINO. «Rosario Acuña y Villanueva, pionera del montañismo asturiano», La Nueva España, Oviedo 6 de febrero de 2006. GARCÍA COBIÁN, Carlos, 1982, Historia de doce Mundiales de fútbol, Gijón. MARTÍN MERINO, JUAN. Hablan los 30 que fueron grandes del fútbol asturiano (Desde Herrerita a Quini). Gijón, 1990 e Historia del fútbol asturiano. Gijón, 1992-1996. MUÑIZ, Mauro. Gijón y los gijoneses. Salinas, Ayalga, 1976. PRADO, RAÚL. «Historia del Descenso del Sella». Asturias Semanal 371, 372 y 373, Oviedo, 1976. RAMOS, JESÚS: Historia del fútbol español. Madrid: Época, 1994 e Historia del ciclismo español. Madrid: Época, 1995. RUBIERA, JOSÉ LUIS-VIÑA, DIONISIO-BERICÚA, LUIS. Gijón: cien años de deporte, II. Gijón, Gran Enciclopedia Asturiana, 2000. RUIZ ALONSO, GERARDO JOSÉ. Historia del Club Natación Santa Olaya (1953-2003). Gijón, edición del autor, 2003. RUIZ DE VELASCO ORIA, ANDRÉS. El golf en Gijón. Recuerdos. Gijón, Merediz y Asociados, SL, 1995. SÁNCHEZ, EMILIO, «LIOMI»-VICGO, 1963, El fútbol internacional español, Gijón. VÁZQUEZ PRADA, RICARDO. Pequeñas historias de grandes figuras en el fútbol asturiano. Oviedo: Alsa, 1982.
(23) Cf. FERNÁNDEZ, LUIS-SERRANO, JOSÉ MANUEL (Dir.): Periodismo deportivo. Curso de Verano de la Universidad de Oviedo, Gijón, 1997 y BERNÁRDEZ, JULIO. El deporte correctamente hablado. Oviedo, Universidad de Oviedo, 1998.
(24) Cf. Exposición La Montaña en la pintura asturiana. Gijón, Agrupación de Montaña Astur Torrecerredo, 1997. Exposición Terrenos de juego 1995-2005. Gijón, Real Sporting de Gijón SAD, 2005. [En línea] [Consulta: 15 de mayo de 2006] Disponible en <http://www.centenariorealsporting.com/contenidos/ expoterrenos /index.htm>. VERDÚ, VICENTE-LOMBARDÍA, MIGUEL ÁNGEL. El Sporting y el fútbol. Gijón, Real Sporting de Gijón, 1990. VILLA PASTUR, JESÚS. «La pintura asturiana y el fútbol». En Sporting-I. Paisaje y figuras. Gijón, Real Sporting de Gijón, p. 99-101, 1ª Ed., 1990.
(25) Cf. MONTES, FRANCISCO JOSÉ. Cartelismo asturiano 1925-1985. Oviedo, Servicio de Publicaciones del Principado de Asturias, 1991. Y también: ÁLVAREZ NAVES, Ramón ‘Naves’. Chistes de una época. Gijón, 1981. GARCÍA QUIRÓS, ROSA MARÍA. El humorismo gráfico en Asturias. Oviedo, Principado de Asturias, 1990. MEDIO, Ígor. La familia Castañón, 1997-2004. Gijón, 2004. MINGOTES, Miguel. Los 100 mejores chistes Oviedo-Gijón y Gijón-Oviedo. Gijón, 1989. NÉSTOR «Deportes de verano». El Comercio, Gijón, 2005. NETO. Pin, cien sonrisas y algo más…Gijón, Pesgos, 1987. ROVÉS, JUAN M. 400 chistes del Gaviotu, Gijón, 1968 y Vivencias de Gijón 1952/1962. Avilés, Gonzalo Martínez Junquera editor, 1998. TRUÁN, Alfredo. Caricaturas personales, Gijón, 1930. VILABELLA, JOSÉ MANUEL. Humor gráfico asturiano, Oviedo, Caja de Ahorros de Asturias, 1987.
(26) Cf. LASSETER, JOHN. Cars. Pixar. Estados Unidos, 2006. CAPELLÍN, Luis Felipe. Sporting, un sentimiento. Gijón, 1999. CARBALLO, NACHO. Quini. Gijón, 2000. CENTRO TERRITORIAL DE TELEVISIÓN ESPAÑOLA EN ASTURIAS. Alma sportinguista. Oviedo: Televisión Española, 2005. GARCI, JOSÉ LUIS. Volver a empezar. Madrid, 1982; Sesión continua. Madrid, 1984; Asignatura aprobada. Madrid, 1987. MARAÑÓN, Carlos. Fútbol y cine. Madrid, Ocho y Medio Libros de Cine, 2005.
(27) Cf. ADÚRIZ, Patricio, 1979, «Real Sporting de Gijón», El Comercio, Gijón, 21 de octubre; «¡Sporting!», El Comercio, Gijón, 7 de marzo de 1982; «Pórtico sportinguista». En El Sporting y el fútbol, Gijón, 1990; Crónica de la Calle Corrida, Gijón, 1990; «Sporting de Gijón», Sporting-I. Paisaje y figuras. Gijón, 11-14, 1ªed., 1990. ALONSO BONET, JOAQUÍN. «Pequeñas historias de Gijón (1900-1936)», El Comercio, Gijón, 20 de marzo de 1960.
(28) Cf. ÁLVAREZ LLANO, ÁNXEL: José Campo: obra poética completa. Mieres, Editora del Norte, 1996. CASTAÑÓN RODRÍGUEZ, JESÚS. «Asturias, tierra humorística». En Humor a patadas. Gijón, Fútbol Asociados, p. 163-184, 1ª Ed., 2002.